with Kai Ryssdal

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Public radio's only national series about the global economy and finance takes a broad view of business, covering any story related to money — most of the world's stories are. Hosted by Kai Ryssdal.

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08/16/2017: The price tag of letting Obamacare fail
The nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office has released a new report evaluating what would happen if Trump cut off Obamacare subsidies. The result: the government will actually end up shelling out more money. We'll take a look at why this move would cost them more, and how taxpayers would be affected. Afterwards, we'll discuss a decline in the number of new homes being built in the U.S., and then talk about fringe sites that are popping up to support white supremacist groups as they get kicked off of more mainstream platforms. (08/16/2017)

This is what CEOs from Trump's manufacturing council said before he disbanded it (update 4)
Update, 8/16/17: President Trump disbanded both his manufacturing council and his Strategy and Policy Forum in a tweet Wednesday morning. Rather than putting pressure on the businesspeople of the Manufacturing Council & Strategy & Policy Forum, I am ending both. Thank you all! — Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) August 16, 2017 The original story appears below. At a White House event on Monday, President Trump explicitly condemned white supremacists and neo-Nazis after facing increasing pressure to rebuke the hate groups responsible for the outbreak of violence in Charlottesville, Virginia, over the weekend.  Earlier in the day, Kenneth Frazier, the CEO of the country’s third-largest pharmaceutical company, Merck, resigned from Trump’s American Manufacturing Council. Frazier opposed the president’s original statement from Saturday that blamed “many sides” for the violence that left three people dead, including one counter-protester who was run over when a car driven by a white nationalist plowed into a crowd.  “As CEO of Merck and as a matter of personal conscience, I feel a responsibility to take a stand against intolerance and extremism,” Frazier said in a tweet. Trump immediately fired back at Frazier on Twitter. Now that Ken Frazier of Merck Pharma has resigned from President's Manufacturing Council,he will have more time to LOWER RIPOFF DRUG PRICES! — Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) August 14, 2017 Frazier is not the first CEO to step down from a Trump presidential advisory council. Other CEOs include Travis Kalanick, formerly of Uber, Tesla’s Elon Musk and Walt Disney’s Robert Iger. Musk also departed from the manufacturing council. Late on Monday, Under Armour CEO Kevin Plank and Intel CEO Brian Krzanich both announced that they will be leaving the president's manufacturing council. Following those events, Scott Paul, president of Alliance for American Manufacturing, announced his resignation from the council Tuesday morning. In the afternoon, Trump held a press conference on his administration's infrastructure plan. The event quickly turned back to the violence in Charlottesville. "There's blame on both sides. You look at both sides. I think there's blame on both sides, and I have no doubt about it," Trump told reporters. Following the press conference, AFL-CIO President Richard Trumka tweeted his resignation from Trump's manufacturing council, and more followed Wednesday. Marketplace reached out to CEOs and companies on Trump’s manufacturing council for comment. Below are their responses. We will update this post if we get additional comments.  Merck CEO Kenneth C. Frazier: "I am resigning from the President's American Manufacturing Council. Our country's strength stems from its diversity and the contributions made by men and women of different faiths, races, sexual orientations and political beliefs. America's leaders must honor our fundamental values by clearly rejecting expressions of hatred, bigotry and group supremacy, which run counter to the American ideal that all people are created equal. As CEO of Merck and as a matter of personal conscience, I feel a responsibility to take a stand against intolerance and extremism." Intel CEO Brian Krzanich: "Earlier today, I tendered my resignation from the American Manufacturing Council. I resigned to call attention to the serious harm our divided political climate is causing to critical issues, including the serious need to address the decline of American manufacturing. Politics and political agendas have sidelined the important mission of rebuilding America’s manufacturing base." Under Armour CEO KEVIN PLANK: "I joined the American Manufacturing Council because I believed it was important for Under Armour to have an active seat at the table and represent our industry. We remain resolute in our potential and ability to improve American manufacturing. However, Under Armour engages in innovation and sports, not politics. I am appreciative of the opportunity to have served, but have decided to step down from the council. I love our country and our company and will continue to focus my efforts on inspiring every person that they can do anything through the power of sport which promotes unity, diversity and inclusion." 3M 3M President, CEO and Chairman Inge Thulin stepped down from the council with a tweet Wednesday morning. "I joined the Manufacturing Jobs Initiative in January to advocate for policies that align with our values and encourage even stronger investment and job growth — in order to make the United States stronger, healthier and more prosperous for all people," Thulin said in a statement. "After careful consideration, I believe the initiative is no longer an effective vehicle for 3M to advance these goals." — 3M (@3M) August 16, 2017 Dell: "While we wouldn't comment on any member's personal decision, there's no change in Dell engaging with the Trump administration and governments around the world to share our perspective on policy issues that affect our company, customers and employees." Lockheed Martin: "We don't have a comment." GE:  “GE has no tolerance for hate, bigotry or racism, and we strongly condemn the violent extremism in Charlottesville over the weekend. GE is a proudly inclusive company with employees who represent all religions, nationalities, sexual orientations and races. With more than 100,000 employees in the United States, it is important for GE to participate in the discussion on how to drive growth and productivity in the U.S., therefore, Jeff Immelt will remain on the Presidential Committee on American Manufacturing while he is the Chairman of GE.” Whirlpool Corp.: “Whirlpool Corp. believes strongly in an open and inclusive culture that respects people of all races and backgrounds. Our company has long fostered an environment of acceptance and tolerance in the workplace. The company will continue on the Manufacturing Jobs Initiative to represent our industry, our 15,000 U.S. workers, and to provide input and advice on ways to create jobs and strengthen U.S. manufacturing competitiveness.” Dow Chemical Company Chairman and CEO Andrew Liveris: “I condemn the violence this weekend in Charlottesville, Virginia, and my thoughts and prayers are with those who lost loved ones and with the people of Virginia. In Dow there is no room for hatred, racism, or bigotry. Dow will continue to work to strengthen the social and economic fabric of the communities where it operates — including supporting policies that help create employment opportunities in manufacturing and rebuild the American workforce.” Campbell: “The reprehensible scenes of bigotry and hatred on display in Charlottesville over the weekend have no place in our society. Not simply because of the violence, but because the racist ideology at the center of the protests is wrong and must be condemned in no uncertain terms. Campbell has long held the belief that diversity and inclusion are critical to the success of our business and our culture. Our commitment to diversity and inclusion is unwavering, and we will remain active champions for these efforts. We believe it continues to be important for Campbell to have a voice and provide input on matters that will affect our industry, our company and our employees in support of growth. Therefore, Ms. Morrison will remain on the President's Manufacturing Jobs Initiative.” Updated statement from Morrison, 8/16/17: "Racism and murder are unequivocally reprehensible and are not morally equivalent to anything else that happened in Charlottesville. I believe the President should have been — and still needs to be — unambiguous on that point. Following yesterdays remakes from the President, I cannot remain on the Manufacturing Jobs Initiative. I will continue to support all efforts to spur economic growth and advocate for the values that have always made America Great"  AFL-CIO President Richard Trumka: "The AFL-CIO has unequivocally denounced the actions of bigoted domestic terrorists in Charlottesville and called on the President to do the same. We are aware of the decisions by other members of the President's Manufacturing Council, which has yet to hold any real meeting, and are assessing our role. While the AFL-CIO will remain a powerful voice for the freedoms of working people, there are real questions into the effectiveness of this council to deliver real policy that lifts working families."  Updated statement from Trumka, 8/15/17: "We cannot sit on a council for a President who tolerates bigotry and domestic terrorism. President Trump’s remarks today repudiate his forced remarks yesterday about the KKK and neo-Nazis. We must resign on behalf of America’s working people, who reject all notions of legitimacy of these bigoted groups.  It’s clear that President Trump’s Manufacturing Council was never an effective means for delivering real policy that lifts working families and his remarks today were the last straw. We joined this council with the intent to be a voice for working people and real hope that it would result in positive economic policy, but it has become yet another broken promise on the President’s record. From hollow councils to bad policy and embracing bigotry, the actions of this administration have are consistently failed working people." International Paper:  "International Paper strongly condemns the violence that took place in Charlottesville over the weekend — there is no place for hatred, bigotry and racism in our society. We are a company that fosters an inclusive workforce where all employees are valued and treated with dignity and respect.  Through our participation on the Manufacturing Jobs Council, we will work to strengthen the social and economic fabric of communities across the country by creating employment opportunities in manufacturing." Nucor Corp.: “At Nucor, we condemn the violence that occurred this past weekend in Charlottesville and reject the hate, bigotry, and racism expressed at the demonstration. As North America's largest steel producer, Nucor has engaged with several administrations to work on policies that help strengthen the U.S. manufacturing sector and provide opportunities for American workers. We believe a strong manufacturing sector is the backbone of a strong economy, and we will continue to serve as a member of the White House Manufacturing Jobs Initiative.” Newell Brands CEO Michael Polk: “With a large portion of our business in the U.S., including a manufacturing footprint of more than 60 factories and 15,000 employees (and counting), it is in our best interests to have a voice in the conversations that can influence the environment in which we work. I plan to continue to collaborate with other leaders from diverse industries, who represent a variety of perspectives and beliefs, to help shape strategies and develop policies that foster a more vibrant economy and more jobs in the U.S.” We find the events of this past weekend in Charlottesville to be incredibly troubling. There is simply no place in our society for racism of any kind, white supremacy, or Neo-Nazism. The values that form these views are intolerable and completely contrary to everything we hold true as proud Americans. We reject and condemn all that hate stands for and hope that as a society, we can come together as one in this view. For its part, Newell Brands has always been and will always be committed to diversity and inclusion in every aspect of our business.” Related Merck executive resigns from president's council, and Trump lashes out After Charlottesville, future of funding to counter homegrown extremism worries experts (08/16/2017)

New report calls on federal government to help shore up nuclear security
Pop quiz: How are nuclear power plants in the U.S. related to national security? It’s OK if you don’t have an answer, because a new 38-page report from the former Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz makes that link explicit.  Click the above audio player to hear the full story. (08/16/2017)

If you kick a white supremacist group off one service, another will be waiting for them
Airbnb, GoDaddy, Google — they've all said to white supremacist groups in so many words: Move on along. Not here. You're not staying with us and your websites aren't welcome.  But while mainstream sites are starting to crack down on groups like these, fringe sites are popping up to fill the resulting vacuum.  Matt Pearce, a national reporter for the LA Times, joined us to talk about some of these platforms and why they're supporting neo-Nazi groups. Sabri Ben-Achour: So mainstream providers have made headlines in recent days for banning hate groups and their members from using their services. But, you know, the Internet is a big place. Do we have any sense of whether it's actually getting harder for extremist groups to operate online in the U.S.? Matt Pearce: The thing that happens with white nationalist groups is usually when they get publicity, crackdown follows. So right now Daily Stormer, which is the most popular neo-Nazi website in America, lost its hosting with GoDaddy and Google. Another website, American Vanguard, when I last looked, it had been shut down by WordPress. So yes, right now it's getting more difficult for them to push their message out and respond to this event that's happened. Related This is what CEOs from Trump's manufacturing council are saying The First Amendment won't protect you from saying something your company doesn't like Ben-Achour: In your reporting, you talk about how some of these extremist groups got around some of these sort of denial of services. They came up, for example, in Charlottesville with things like Nazi Uber or the Hate Van. And there's a crop of small startups that you call a "shadow Silicon Valley."  Pearce: You have things like Hatreon. It started as a response to Patreon, which is a website where artists and other people can get recurring monthly donations from their supporters in order to support their projects and what they're doing. You see companies like that cropping up on the right in response to this kind of more mainstream crackdown, because there's a demand out there for it. These companies will profit by taking a slice of the fees out of certain donations, so you know they get a cut for themselves. They profit. The far right has financial infrastructure for themselves so that they can fund the rallies, so that they can fund whatever their projects are. Ben-Achour: The companies that provide these alternative parallel services — why are they doing this? Is it politically motivated or is it purely just about the money? Pearce: It's a little bit of both, though some of it's about the concept of free speech in the 21st century, right? You go back 60 years ago — if the Ku Klux Klan wants to go rally in a park, it's a public park. They're protected by the First Amendment. They have the right to do that. The government can't really crack down on them. But now in the 21st century, the public square has been privatized. A lot of the speech that we have is on platforms such as Twitter and Facebook. Which, you know, we don't have First Amendment protections there, so if those companies decide that they want to crack down on people who have particular viewpoints, they can do that. So it was actually a range of motivations. (08/16/2017)

Today, Target reports. More bad news from the retail sector?
This morning, we'll hear from discount retailer Target on how it performed in the second quarter of the year. Last month, Target raised its guidance on sales at stores open at least a year. Analysts will be watching to see how its digital sales perform against big rivals like Amazon, which present ever increasing threats. Click the audio player above to hear the full story. (08/16/2017)

What to expect from today's NAFTA renegotiations
Attacking the North American Free Trade Agreement was a central part of President Trump's campaign. But as talks between the U.S., Canada and Mexico open up today, his administration has the chance to change it.   To get a sense of what the three countries are going to be hashing out during these negotiations, we called up Mickey Kantor, who was the U.S. Trade Representative under the Clinton adminstration and helped negotiate parts of the original trade agreement. Below is an edited transcript of the conversation. Sabri Ben-Achour: So do you expect a major overhaul of NAFTA to result from this negotiation, or just a bunch of small cosmetic changes? Mickey Kantor: Oh, I think we're somewhere in between. There'll be changes. I think there will be an updating which we need desperately. NAFTA negotiations began in 1989 — that's 28 years ago. We finished it in 1993, and that's 24 years ago. A lot has happened since then, especially in the IP, artificial intelligence, cloud world and so there will not be major changes. I predict there will be updating.  Ben-Achour: So where are the fights going to be? Where are the big sticking points? Kantor: Well, the first sticking point is where are we going to settle disputes? Are we going to settle them internally with the U.S. using its laws, but being judge, jury and prosecutor with regard to dumping products on markets or whether products are subsidized and able to operate independently? Canada is going to fight very hard, as is Mexico, to keep the disputes over dumping and countervailing duties, we call it, inside the NAFTA court, and the U.S. will fight to take it outside NAFTA so it can operate independently. Related How NAFTA negotiations might affect the tequila business Did NAFTA cost or create jobs? Both Ben-Achour: President Trump has repeatedly singled out the trade deficit with Mexico and Canada. Do you think that will come up in these negotiations? How realistic is it for a trade deal to address this? Kantor: Trade deficits have very little to do with trade agreements. First of all, the strength of the economy is the first thing that has to do with trade deficits. If your economy, like the U.S., is stronger than others and you're a consumer-based economy, of course you're going to suck in a lot of goods from around the world. Then the currency changes and manipulations will affect the trade deficit. Whether or not your industries are competitive, how good is your infrastructure, wages, taxes — those are the things that affect the trade deficit. Trade agreements have very little effect on trade deficits. Ben-Achour: What are you hoping to see come out of this process as someone who negotiated NAFTA in the first place? Kantor: There are broader issues here. What we're trying to do in trade is to create a rules-based system. We don't want free trade, we want rules-based trade where everyone operates on a level playing field. And that's what we should be trying to accomplish — a continued strong relationship with Mexico and Canada would be the first thing. Our exports to Mexico are as great as almost the entire European Union combined. Just think about that. Mexico and Canada are by far our largest trading partners and the three of us together are the largest trading area in the world. And so here we are trying to delicately update an agreement between three countries without upsetting the apple cart. And that's what ought to be our goal. (08/16/2017)

Joining a presidential council gets you access. Quitting it risks public shaming.
President Trump's American Manufacturing Council originally included the chief executives of more than two dozen top U.S. companies, as well as leaders of industry groups and labor unions. Today, it has four fewer members, after Trump made what many called an inadequate response to the deadly weekend violence at a white supremacist rally in Charlottesville, Virginia. Merck CEO Kenneth Frazier was the first to quit yesterday. Then the bosses of Under Armour and Intel, Kevin Plank and Brian Krzanich, followed suit. Today, Scott Paul, president of the Alliance for American Manufacturing, also left. (Tesla CEO Elon Musk quit earlier this year, after Trump announced he was withdrawing the U.S. from the Paris climate accord.) Trump tweeted today, criticizing the business leaders who have announced they’re leaving the council. For every CEO that drops out of the Manufacturing Council, I have many to take their place. Grandstanders should not have gone on. JOBS! — Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) August 15, 2017 There are myriad reasons for CEOs to join presidential commissions in the first place.   "Presidential commissions are often ceremonial,” said Mark Cohen, director of retail studies at Columbia University. “It's kind of like a merit badge for a CEO to be part of a group like this." He said participation brings prestige and visibility to the CEO personally and to his or her company in the marketplace. It can also bring invaluable political access, said John Palizza, a former top executive at Walgreen and retired business professor at Rice University. "A lot of money is thrown at lobbying in Washington,” Palizza said. “Being on a presidential council never guarantees that your policies are going to get carried out, but it probably guarantees that you'll be heard before anybody else."  Trump, though, has the loudest voice on the political landscape, said Norm Ornstein, resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute and contributing editor at the National Review and The Atlantic. Ornstein said that many CEOs who initially agreed to join the president’s advisory council are now finding that the prestige and access they obtained is outweighed by being associated with an administration frequently accused of indifference to racism.  related This is what CEOs from Trump's manufacturing council are saying Merck executive resigns from president's council, and Trump lashes out "Identifying with the president in this way was going to identify them with bad things that could damage their businesses and reputations," Ornstein said. He predicted that more CEOs will quit the manufacturing council in coming weeks. “The CEO of Campbell’s Soup is now the target of a number of tweets using the hashtag #SoupNazi, coming from that famous "Seinfeld" episode,” he said. “If you’re the CEO of a company that has the kind of reputation that Campbell’s Soup has, you’ve got to think long and hard about whether you want to be the continued focal point for that kind of publicity.” On the other hand, CEOs who choose to remain on the manufacturing council can continue to pursue policy goals (such as corporate tax cuts, immigration and health care reform) to benefit corporate America and their own particular industry. Analysts say those who don’t leave will also be well-positioned to develop better connections with the administration and Congress that can boost their companies’ bottom lines. By contrast, CEOs who quit the manufacturing council for political reasons risk a barrage of angry tweets from Trump and may have less leverage to pursue their corporate goals in Washington down the road. (08/15/2017)

Government science agencies still lack permanent leaders
Of 577 key federal jobs requiring Senate confirmation, only 106 have had nominees put forward by President Trump. That's according to the count by the Washington Post and the Partnership for Public Service. Those vacancies include leadership roles at NASA and NOAA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. With no one at the helm, science-based agencies can’t undertake major new research or other initiatives, and lose their effectiveness. But under the current White House administration, new leadership could be more disruptive. Click the audio player above to hear the full story. (08/15/2017)

Amazon is everywhere. Even in economic data.
Today the retail industry got a small piece of good news in the form of some data from July that was better than expected. The government announced this morning that retail sales last month were up 0.6 percent during the previous month and more than 4 percent from this time last year. Not bad for an industry that’s had a lot of hand wringing of late. One of the reasons for the gain? Amazon Prime Day.   Click the audio player above to hear the full story. (08/15/2017)

How NAFTA negotiations might affect the tequila business
My Economy tells the story of the new economic normal through the eyes of people trying to make it, because we know the only numbers that really matter are the ones in your economy. Today’s installment is from Dr. Javier Martinez, CEO of Martinez Brands, a wine and spirits wholesaler and importer in Pasadena, California. My advice for the Mexican negotiators would be to be strong. We don’t want to kill this agreement because it has been beneficial for the three parties: Mexico, the U.S. and Canada. Be strong. Do not give up on stupid things like tariffs, because it will damage the commerce between the two countries. So be strong. Be firm. My view, right now, is that there is a strong demand for Mexican products in the U.S. Tequila is growing at six percent every year. Mezcal is growing double digits. Even if you kill NAFTA and you’ll have to go by the rules of the World Trade Organization. Last case scenario, the U.S. imposes a tariff. That will affect obviously the price and eventually the demand. But not to the point of killing the commerce between the two countries. The Mexican producers already have the American interests defending NAFTA — the commerce between the two countries. And they have actually, for the first time in so many years, coordinated a strategy. So something we didn’t have seven months or eight months ago when we started talking about this issue. This time allowed us to coordinate: “Okay, what is your interest in Mexico and how do they connect with the interests in the United States?” That is happening right now and I think both sides are well-prepared to fight the fight. related How NAFTA renegotiations could threaten America's love affair with tequila  What people get wrong when they talk about NAFTA NAFTA Explained Series (08/15/2017)

The place where globalization kept its promise
The idea of more open, global trade has been sold as necessary for economic success. Yet today we hear calls to "build a wall" and to break up trading partnerships. Turns out we've seen the pendulum swing between free trade and protectionism many times before. Our series Trade Off looks at key moments when trade barriers have been built up or torn down and at globalization's winners and losers.  Candidate Donald Trump spent a lot of time on economic themes during his campaign. There weren’t a lot of specifics, but at the heart of Trump’s economic policies was globalization. His policy, in a nutshell, is that the U.S. ought to be doing less of it and that, with less global trade, the American economy would be better off. Some American voters seemed to like Trump’s message. He carried many of the states that have seen the negative effects of globalization, like Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana. Once President Trump entered office, he officially withdrew from the Trans-Pacific Partnership and later started the process to renegotiate the North American Free Trade Agreement. But there are plenty of people who like globalization. They’re not academics or politicians – they’re real people who happen to live in a part of the country that has seen the benefits of globalization in the form of a brand-new BMW. Twenty-five years ago, the going economic idea was that globalization would make the entire world rich.  Countries wouldn’t try to make everything, instead, they would make what they were best at, export those goods to other countries, and then buy what they needed from other countries. Related What went wrong with Globalization? From Hamilton to Trump, the U.S. has a long history of America-first policies And it was at about this time that BMW realized that it made more economic sense for them to manufacture BMW cars not in Germany, but in the U.S. In 1992, they chose South Carolina. David Britt, who serves on the Spartanburg County Council, remembers the day he heard BMW was coming to his county: “It was just amazing relief, satisfaction and it’s almost like being found in an ocean. When you’re out in an ocean by yourself with no life preserver and you’ve fallen overboard and you’re just hoping that somebody’s going to come and save you. That’s the feeling, just being saved.” A photo collage showing BMW's arrival in Spartanburg, South Carolina. Top row, left to right: A local newspaper's coverage of BMW's decision to build a manufacturing plant on the Greenville-Spartanburg county line. The grand opening of the manufacturing plant. Bottom row, left to right: BMW employees celebrate the first car to roll off the line. June 1992: BMW announces its decision to choose South Carolina over Nebraska as the site for its only American manufacturing facility. Photos courtesy of BMW Britt said "saved" because he knew what was about to happen to the area’s economy. Textile manufacturing had been the main industry in the area for decades. But ironically, because of globalization, those jobs started to move off shore. “It took this community by surprise” said Britt. “It was a stomach punch like you’ve never seen. We had 25,000 employees lose their job in about 10, 12 years. This downtown was decimated. We didn’t know where to turn.” Their savior would be, as it turned out, more globalization. And it turns out, Upstate South Carolina was a perfect candidate. They had experienced factory workers who needed jobs, they had space for BMW to build with room to grow, there was a nearby airport for flying in those German engines, and the state had the Port of Charleston, which meant completed cars could easily make their way to buyers around the world. South Carolina also offered BMW financial incentives to pick their state over others (Nebraska also made a bid) and South Carolina is a right-to-work state so BMW didn't have to worry about organized labor. David Britt is a member of the Spartanburg County Council. He's served since 1991, before BMW came to town. Bridget Bodnar/Marketplace Britt credits BMW with creating an international community in the area. “Since that day, we’ve now landed Volvo, Mercedes, they do the Mercedes vans right here in the Upstate. And all other automotive manufacturing facilities that are in Tennessee, Alabama – those suppliers, they’ve landed here.” BMW and its suppliers have brought 30,000 jobs to the area. A recent study from the University of South Carolina points to other economic benefits too. Statewide, unemployment is slightly below the national average, around a flat 4 percent. Britt likes to repeat a phrase that is a common refrain from those who argue for globalization. That the “rising tide floats all boats.” But it’s that perspective that puts the people in this community at odds with Trump’s stated economic agenda. When it comes to policy coming out of the White House, Britt said "I think there’s a lack of understanding. And I think the president will come down [to South Carolina] and I think he will see what’s happened here. I invite him to come to Spartanburg, I can let him stay at my house if he’d like to, come on down, but I’d love for him to see what BMW and all the other international companies have meant to us. I say to the President and his staff – you guys deal with the countries…and let us deal with the companies." But the politics of the global economy are never that easy. (08/15/2017)

Your pumpkin pie is a lie
Always leave room for dessert, especially when it's served with a little business history on the side. In her new cookbook, "BraveTart: Iconic American Desserts," Serious Eats senior editor Stella Parks tells how some of the most all-American desserts became so popular in this country. A lot of times, it's because a corporation made it happen. Marketplace host Kai Ryssdal talked to Parks about some of the recipes in her book and how they came to define American baking. The following is an edited transcript of their conversation. Kai Ryssdal: So this is an awesome book because there's all kinds of fun stuff in it. And were I a better baker, I would make some of it. But it's a little bit depressing too, because there's a whole lot of corporate and branding and marketing and all that stuff behind all these treats that we know and love in this country.  Stella Parks: That's not depressing.  Ryssdal: Oh. OK. It was depressing for me.  Parks: No, I think it's a fantastic part of American culture, the way these desserts are disseminated across the country thanks to these marketing efforts and corporations. Ryssdal: So we'll do a couple of examples here, the first one up, talk to me about pumpkin pie for a minute, would you? Parks: I wondered if you'd bring that up. I know you're not a fan of pumpkin pie. Stella Parks Sarah Jane Sanders Ryssdal: I think pumpkin pie is overrated.  Parks: I think that's fair for people to, I mean, know what they like. I think you've probably experienced the fact that you say, "I like pumpkin pie," and people say, "Well, you haven't had my grandmother's pumpkin pie." Pumpkin pie can have a lot of bad things going for it, so it's not unreasonable that you haven't enjoyed it.  Ryssdal: Totally fair enough. Give me the corporate story, though, of how we got to where pumpkin pie is this staple in this economy now?  Parks: Well it's this kind of secret pumpkin cabal in a way. Ryssdal: And other phrases that have never been said on Marketplace.  Parks: Right. So pumpkins are not actually very good for pie. And everyone knows this. Back in the day everyone enjoyed squash a lot more, like a butternut squash or winter squash. And so there is this guy who was like this kind of squash king and he was into kind of consolidating different squashes and squash research and growing different varietals of squash. And he just snapped up this packing plant and was able to kind of get a monopoly on all the farmers in a specific area of America, which is now Libby's Pumpkin, which is secretly squash.  Ryssdal: But if I go to the store and I buy a can of pumpkin, it says on the outside 100 percent pumpkin. Parks: Yeah, there's no rule about what pumpkins are. Ryssdal: Really?  Parks: The Food and Drug Administration has no legal distinctions between pumpkins and squash. They're all in the same botanical family, and it's just a game of semantics. And the FDA was like, it doesn't matter, and it doesn't. I'm pro-squash. Ryssdal: I wonder how many people listening to this interview, of which I am one, I will tell you, thought it actually was pumpkin that came glopping out of the can.  Parks: Yeah, it's totally not pumpkin.  Ryssdal: That's mildly horrifying. All right. So to prove that I am not a complete dessert Scrooge here, cheesecake. Cheesecake is my go to. At my house, on your birthday, you get the dessert you want and cheesecake is mine. Parks: That's fantastic. Cheesecake is just dreamy. It's pretty great. Ryssdal: And yet there is a corporate story behind my favorite dessert here. Parks: So the story behind cheesecake comes down to cream cheese, which was, in the 1800s, a really unique regional product to Pennsylvania. But it was also really popular in New York because New York farmers, they would skim it, so it just didn't have that same luxurious sense of a full-fat cheese. So this New York based dairy farmer and his marketing partner decided to start selling their New York cream cheese as "Philadelphia cream cheese." Ryssdal: Nice. Parks: So people go to the market, they're not used to advertising. They have no savvy about how to, like, differentiate what these claims truly mean. And they just see this really beautiful package, this thing that says "Philadelphia cream cheese. And they're like, "Perfect, that's exactly what I came here to buy today." Ryssdal: There you go, and I'll tell you, go to the store today and it's completely recognizable and you don't even think. You grab a couple or three and you go home and you make whatever you're making.  Recipes and photograph from BraveTart: Iconic American Desserts by Stella Parks. Copyright © 2017 by Stella Parks. Reprinted with permission of W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Butternut Pumpkin Pie America’s favorite pumpkin puree is actually made from squash, so why not turn to the earthy sweetness of fresh butternut squash? It’s dead easy to prepare at home and tastes more vibrantly “pumpkin” than anything from a can. By that same token, homemade condensed milk is rich and creamy like no other. Baked together in a crisp and flaky All-Butter Pastry Crust, these DIY ingredients elevate a traditional pie into something more than the sum of its parts. Yield: one 9-inch pie; 8 to 12 servings | Active time: 45 minutes (only 5 minutes with components prepared in advance) | Downtime: 45-minute roast, plus 2-hour rest Butternut Custard: 1 medium butternut squash (about 7 inches long and 4 inches across at the base; at least 24 ounces) 1 recipe (2 cups | 19 ounces) Quick Condensed Milk (page 169), at room temperature 1/2 cup packed | 4 ounces light brown sugar 1 tablespoon vanilla extract or bourbon 1 1/2 teaspoons ground ginger 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cinnamon 1/4 teaspoon grated nutmeg, plus more to garnish if desired 1/4 teaspoon Diamond Crystal kosher salt (half as much if iodized) 1/8 teaspoon ground cloves 2 tablespoons | 1 ounce unsalted butter, melted 3 large eggs, straight from the fridge 1 fully baked No-Stress All-Butter Pastry Crust (page 150) 1/2 recipe (2 cups | 8 ounces) Make-Ahead Whipped Cream (page 89), or any variation (optional) 1  cup | 5 ounces crushed Homemade Heath® Toffee Bits (page 320; optional) Prepare the squash puree: Adjust oven rack to lower-middle position and preheat to 400° F. Split the squash lengthways, scoop out the seeds, and place cut side down on a foil-lined aluminum baking sheet. Roast until fork-tender, about 45 minutes. When the squash is cool enough to handle, use a large spoon to scrape out the pulp. Pulse in a food processor until smooth, or rub through a double-mesh sieve. Measure out 14 ounces (1 3/4 cups) squash puree. Use warm, or refrigerate in an airtight container for up to 1 week. Make the pie: Adjust oven rack to lower-middle position and preheat to 375° F. In a medium bowl, whisk the squash puree, Quick Condensed Milk, brown sugar, vanilla, ginger, cinnamon, nutmeg, salt, cloves, butter, and eggs until smooth. Pour into the baked crust, place on an aluminum baking sheet, and bake until the custard has puffed into a gentle dome, about 25 minutes. Reduce oven temperature to 350° F and continue baking until the custard is firm around the edges but still wobbly in the very center, about 25 minutes more (200° F; 210° F if the probe touches the crust). Let cool at room temperature until the custard is set, about 2 hours. Cut the pie with a chef’s knife. If you like, serve with dollops of whipped cream and a sprinkling of crushed toffee. Wrapped in plastic, leftovers will keep for up to 4 days at room temperature. Make ahead From the No-Stress All-Butter Pastry Crust, which can be rolled, shaped, and frozen months in advance, to the Quick Condensed Milk and squash puree, every element of this recipe can be made well ahead, so don’t feel as if you need to tackle it all at once. If you have any leftover squash puree, it can be refrigerated for up to 1 week and used in your next batch of Five-Minute Muffins (page 282). Mix it up! Snickerstreusel Crumble: The last-minute addition of crunchy toasted nuts and chewy oatmeal via my buttery Snickerstreusel give this creamy pie a wonderful variety of textures. Make and bake the pie as directed, but after reducing the oven temperature to 350° F, sprinkle the semi-baked pie with 3 ounces (3/4 cup) cold or frozen Snickerstreusel (page 48). Continue baking as above, allowing an additional 5 minutes for the streusel to crisp. Quick Condensed Milk Homemade sweetened condensed milk traditionally requires ultra-low heat and up to 6 hours of constant stirring, but with a splash of heavy cream added to prevent scorching, I can crank up the heat and be done in 45 minutes. The result is thicker, creamier, and more luscious than anything from a can, with a rich dairy flavor and subtle notes of caramel. If you like chai tea, be sure to try the cinnamon-spiced variation. Yield: 2 cups (about 19 ounces) | Active time: 45 minutes 4 cups | 32 ounces milk (any percentage will do) 3/4 cup | 6 ounces heavy cream 1 cup | 7 ounces sugar 1/8 teaspoon Diamond Crystal kosher salt (half as much if iodized) Key Point: Even slightly acidic ingredients will cause hot dairy to curdle, including raw cane sugar, brown sugar, coconut sugar, maple syrup, honey, and agave. Take care when experimenting with ingredients not listed in the variations. Combine milk, cream, sugar, and salt in a 5-quart stainless steel saucier. If using a scale, weigh the pot and ingredients together so you can digitally track the reduction. Place over medium heat, stirring occasionally with a heat resistant spatula, until the milk begins to simmer, about 12 minutes. Continue cooking another 30 minutes more, scraping continuously to prevent a milky buildup from forming around the sides. When the thickened milk-syrup suddenly begins to foam, it’s almost done. Keep simmering and stirring until the foam subsides and the dairy has condensed to exactly 2 cups or 19 ounces. If using a scale, the pot will weigh 26 ounces less than when you started. Pour into an airtight container, seal to prevent evaporation, and refrigerate up to 1 month. To mimic the consistency of canned milk, bring to room temperature before using. Troubleshooting The timing of this recipe may vary considerably depending on the heat output of your stove and the size, shape, and heaviness of your pot. If it takes considerably longer than 12 minutes to bring the milk to a simmer, you can safely increase the heat to medium-high in order to reduce the dairy within the allotted time. Conversely, should the milk begin to simmer much faster, reduce the heat to medium-low to prevent the dairy from cooking too hard. Mix it up! Chai Spice: Along with the sugar, add two 4-inch cinnamon sticks, 1/2 teaspoon fennel seeds, 1/2 teaspoon whole allspice berries, 10 whole black peppercorns, 5 whole cloves, and 6 white cardamom pods, gently cracked. Proceed as directed. For an easy chai latte, stir 1 tablespoon of the spiced milk into 6 ounces (3/4 cup) hot black tea, such as Assam. Dulce de Leche: This rich and nutty variation owes its caramel flavor and color to baking soda, which raises the dairy’s pH, allowing the lactose to brown at lower temperatures than normal. Add 1/2 teaspoon baking soda to the sugar and proceed as directed; though the mixture will foam more vigorously, there is no risk of overflow. Made with goat’s milk in the variation below, dulce de leche is known as cajeta. As the browning process will resume with continued exposure to heat, neither dulce de leche or cajeta can be used as an ingredient in baked goods. Fresh Ginger: Peel and roughly chop a 2-inch piece of fresh ginger; add along with the sugar. Goat’s-Milk: This variation is more easily digested by those with lactose intolerance, and because goat’s milk won’t curdle when it’s boiled, there’s no need for cream. Trust me, there’s nothing “goaty” about it — just gentle creaminess anyone can enjoy. Replace milk and cream with 38 ounces (4 3/4 cups) goat’s milk and proceed as directed. Note: This variation requires “ultra-high temperature” pasteurized goat’s milk, as raw or low-heat pasteurized versions may turn grainy with prolonged cooking. Lavender: During the cooking process, lavender mellows into something soft and aromatic, without any hint of the soapiness that can so often be its downfall. Add 1 tablespoon dried lavender buds along with the sugar. Rosemary: Wonderfully herbaceous, this variation is my absolute favorite way to make Pumpkin Pie. Add a 4-inch sprig of fresh rosemary along with the sugar. Soft-Serve: This eggless ice cream has an unbelievably pure and creamy flavor, with a silkiness that reminds me of Dairy Queen soft serve. Prepare the Quick Condensed Milk or any variation and pour into a large bowl. Add 10 ounces (1 1/4 cups) heavy cream, 2 ounces (1/4 cup) whole milk, 1/4 teaspoon kosher salt (half as much if iodized), and 1 tablespoon vanilla extract and mix well. Chill until cold, about 2 hours, and churn according to the directions for Double-Vanilla Ice Cream (page 334). Vanilla Bean: I make this variation whenever I have an empty vanilla bean left over from another project, as the cooking process will extract considerable flavor from even the most withered pod (the sheer volume of seeds in a “fresh” pod can turn the milk gray). Add scraped vanilla pod to the milk and proceed as directed. To deepen the flavor, leave the vanilla pod in the jar of Quick Condensed Milk. Related Why are sticks of butter long and skinny in the East, but short and fat in the West? Cream cheese has a history wrapped in tin foil In the world of ketchup, Heinz is the most iconic   (08/15/2017)

Solar industry grapples with possibility of tariffs on imported panels
The U.S. International Trade Commission, an independent federal agency, starts hearings Tuesday on whether U.S. solar manufacturers are being hurt by foreign competition. The hearings could lead to tariffs being put in place on all foreign-made panels. Such tariffs could have consequences for the entire solar industry.  Click the audio player above to hear the full story. (08/15/2017)

When is it OK to bring your kid to work?
Do you ever bring your child to work with you? Do you feel like you have co-workers that do it way too often? Marketplace Weekend is tackling kids at the office in its latest work advice column from Alison Green, from the popular blog, Ask a Manager.  Bringing a child to the office can bring up all sorts of questions. When is it appropriate and when isn't it? If you don't have kids, do you feel like your boss takes your child-free status for granted? And for managers, when do you give parents some leeway to bring their kids to the office or work flexible hours to accommodate a little one? Where do you draw the line? Should pets get the same consideration as children when it comes to visits to the office? Send us your questions and concerns. Leave us a voice memo or email, or leave a comment in the box below. Share this with your friends on Twitter and Facebook, and let us know what they say. You can also give us a call at 800-648-5114. We look forward to hearing from you!   (08/15/2017)

Who are the winners and losers of globalization?
Slow income growth among the middle class of rich countries like the U.S., Japan and Germany is widely attributed to globalization. A lack of upward mobility has been frustrating for many, leading to an increase of political populism on both sides of the spectrum. Former World Bank economist Branko Milanovic has created the “elephant chart,” which answers the question: Who are the winners and losers of globalization? (08/15/2017)

08/15/2017: Millennials aren't very interested in those candlelight suppers
North Korean leader Kim Jong-un has decided not to launch four missiles toward Guam after all, according to state media reports. Is that what's helping to calm markets? MacroPolicy Perspectives Julia Coronado joined us to talk about some of the factors responsible for this stock market rally. Afterwards, we'll discuss the crowded field of premium rewards cards, and then look at why millennials seem to be disinterested in vintage furniture.  (08/15/2017)

Banks are rethinking their premium credit card offerings
Bank of America plans to launch a new premium rewards credit card next month. The bank is entering a crowded field of similar products from American Express and Chase, whose Sapphire Reserve card made headlines for its initial 100,000-point sign-up bonus and $450 annual fee. As a result, banks are changing the way they try to lure new customers. Click the audio player above to hear the full story. (08/15/2017)

Why dry cleaning women's shirts costs more and other clothing secrets revealed
This is just one of the stories from our "I've Always Wondered" series, where we tackle all of your questions about the world of business, no matter how big or small. Ever wondered if recycling is worth it? Or how store brands stack up against name brands? What do you wonder? Let us know here. Listener Agnes Welch sent in this question: Why do dry cleaners charge more for ladies’ dress shirts than men’s dress shirts? Most often when men drop off their shirts to be cleaned, they want them folded, according to Phyllis Shapiro, founder and president of Innovating Consulting Solutions and a faculty member at The New School’s Parson School of Design. That means that they are washed in a machine instead of dry cleaned. Women, on the other hand, tend to drop off their shirts to be dry cleaned and hung. “It doesn't matter if it's a blouse or a man's or woman's shirt, if you dry clean it, it's going to cost more than if you launder something,” explained Peter Blake, executive director of South Eastern Fabricare Association, SEFA. “If you bring men's cotton, button-down Oxford shirts to the dry cleaner, they are not dry cleaning those. They are washing them. That's one of the misconceptions. People think just because you bring something to the dry cleaners that it's being dry cleaned, but cotton shirts — like men's business shirts — those are all being laundered. So there's a little bit of a difference." When asked if male customers knew that their shirts were being laundered and not dry cleaned, both Shapiro and Blake insisted that customers were aware. Blake, who is vehemently opposed to gender-based pricing, also points out that the reason why dry cleaning some items might cost more than others is due to their size and design. “Typically men's shirts are pretty straight forward — they are anywhere from 14.5 inches to 17.5 inches neck size — and button down. They go on automate presses and you can do 50 of them an hour, maybe 70 an hour. You can do two at the same time, it's a high production item,” he explained. “When you get to the blouses, because of the ornamentation or because of the size difference, they don't have automated presses to do those, so those have to be done on different presses and it takes a lot more labor. It takes a lot longer to do than the standard typical men's button-down cotton shirt and that's the biggest difference." Freshly pressed shirts hang on wire hangers at Maxwell the Cleaner in San Rafael, California Justin Sullivan/Getty Images Any shirts that don’t fit the standard press — whether they be for smaller men or larger men or women’s shirts — should be charged more since they’d take longer to press, he said. This is why Blake recommends that dry cleaning places do not list gender on their price lists and instead determine their prices based on size and design. However, some dry cleaners do not make that distinction. Back in 1991, the Massachusetts attorney general's office conducted an experiment where a woman and a man brought the same pink cotton blouse to a number of dry cleaners. The woman — Barbara Anthony, chief of the Public Protection Bureau in the attorney general's office — was charged $3 compared to the $1.50 that her male colleague was charged. Over the years, a number of states and cities have passed laws prohibiting gender-based price discrimination. According to the Los Angeles Times, California became the first state to prohibit such discrimination back in 1995. If the price difference comes down to the size of shirts, why don’t dry cleaners just get smaller presses? At the moment, there are no presses for smaller shirts, “because there is not really a call for it,” said Blake. "Think about how many men's shirts a typical place would have, it far outnumbers the number of women's blouses they'd get." According to Shapiro, men still make up a majority of those who send out their clothes for dry cleaning and laundering. Listener Carolyn Somerville sent in this question: Why do clothing manufacturers sew the pockets shut? Sewing pockets, vents and pleats shut can ensure that the clothes keep their intended shape during both manufacturing as well as the arduous shipping process. "Garments are usually shipped even if they are made in this country, which nothing is,” said Shapiro. “They come shipped packed in boxes, flat, and if a pocket is askew and if it is packed up and is put on the water on a big ship coming from China for a month, it's going to be a disaster when it gets here.” The pockets are sewn shut before the workers press the garments. Not only does this help with maintaining the quality of clothes during the shipping process, but it makes pressing easier and also helps avoid wear and tear once the clothes get to the store. For example, if pockets are sewn shut, people trying on the clothes in the store cannot put their hands in and stretch them out. There is a lot of debate in some corners of the internet about whether people should cut their pockets and vents open once they purchase the clothes. "Oh my Gosh, please people, cut the vents open!" said Shapiro. "Can you quote me directly on that? Please people, cut the back vents open. It'll make it easier to walk and move in your garment." But what if the person wants the coat or jacket to retain its shape? No, cut it open, Shapiro insists. "There was a designer that created the product and they fitted it on a human being or the mannequin so that the silhouette and the line of it would be perfect when opened and if people keep their vent closed, it's because they didn't buy the right garment or else it should fit properly," she said. “A lot of the time, men don't cut the pockets on their sports coats or on their suit jackets, because they then tend to put their hands or other things in it and they will get stretched out. If it's a pocket with a flap that you don't see the stitches, keep it closed if you want. That's fine. But on the back of something, where it's an obvious basting stitch — which is usually very long and big so it’s easy to snip and just pull out — that shows it should be cut." Related Young Wall Street bankers turn to custom suits The Street of Eternal Happiness: The Tailor Are you worried about your belt size? Ian Waldie/Getty Images Listener Paul Hanneman sent in this question: Why are belt sizes not the same as our waist size? Like with most pants, there is no industry standard for belt sizing. For example, women’s jeans can be bought in sizes ranging from 0 to 16 or extra-small to extra-large or based on waist measurements. Belts, too, are made on different scales based on their manufacturer. Yet even if the belt is made to fit based on waist size, the sizing can be a little off. “It's called ‘vanity’ sizing,” said Ushbir Singh, who works at Universal Elliot Corp, a belt manufacturer in New York. “Where a person’s waist actually measures 34 inches but a belt marked 32 fits them, it's just a way companies make their customers feel better.” At other companies, belts tend to be a little bigger than the actual waist size because the manufacturer is accounting for the extra layer of clothing in between the belt and your waist, explained Yinon Badichi, the founder of Badichi, a custom-belt design company in New York which avoids the belt sizing problem by measuring each client. Related Fashion's new fairy godmother: Designer dress rental A warehouse dash with Rent the Runway     (08/15/2017)

27.5: Where's my podcast?
We won't have a Make Me Smart podcast in the feed today, but we will have one tomorrow. We'll be talking with Marketplace correspondent Scott Tong about globalization; we'll hear your thoughts about our bitcoin episode; and we're going to announce our next selection for the Make Me Smart book club. To pass the time, head over to our site. If you're new to the show, you can check out our back episodes. And we've got a post up right now explaining some more about bitcoins and where they came from. That's all today. We'll talk tomorrow. (08/15/2017)

The one vintage thing that doesn't appeal to millennials: Furniture
Millennials have now surpassed baby boomers as America’s largest living generation. That makes those in the 20-36 age range a driving force behind shopping trends. But it’s what millennials are not buying that caught our attention. David Lackey is an appraiser on the long-running PBS series “Antiques Roadshow.” At his shop in an upscale neighborhood in Houston, Lackey said the market for antique furniture is down. “Traditional English and American furniture, overall, has fallen maybe 50 to 75 percent,” he said. “There are half as many antique shows as there were 20 or 30 years ago.” Art Market Research collects and analyzes art and antique data from major auction houses. It reports a nearly 40 percent drop in the value of English antique furniture in the past decade. Lackey said the internet contributed to that by making items more accessible. When in the past it may have taken years to find an item, you can now instantly find 17 for sale at the click of a button. But there’s another factor: millennials who may not have inherited a love of antiques. “The younger generation, for the most part, is not very interested in formal candlelight suppers,” Lackey said. “They don’t want silver, china, crystal, because they don’t intend to entertain that way.”  Related Why do we care if millennials are buying homes? Paper coupons are cool again In addition to changing fashions and personal preference, there are a few other factors that may be at play. When it comes to having space for those dining room sets, an increase in college tuition and the resulting student debt burden has resulted in falling home ownership rates among millennials. According to U.S. census data, only 34 percent of millennials are homeowners. Millennials also entered the workforce during the Great Recession. They’ve experienced high unemployment. They also live with their parents longer than previous generations. Student debt has also changed spending patterns in the millennial generation. All of these factors point to lower disposable income. Millennials are more conservative than the previous generation in their spending and are less likely to buy luxury goods, according to Goldman Sachs.   Greg Nolte has owned “Gen’s Antiques,” also in Houston, for the past 14 years. “The brick-and-mortar stores are suffering,” he said. “Our industry in particular is stuff you need to touch and feel, and know about. It’s very hard to sell online.” Rachel Hernandez, 26, is a manager of a vintage clothing store. She thinks old is fine for clothing, but antique furniture misses the mark. “Spending a couple hundred on something that my grandma has doesn’t work. It’s not ‘where it’s at,’” said Hernandez. Still, antique dealer Lackey said what goes around tends to come around. “A lot of things will come back,” he said. “Someday, the millennials, they may be horrified when their children want mahogany furniture and doilies and figurines. They may just think it’s horrible. ‘Why would you want that?’” So maybe, in another decade, it will be time to start dusting off treasures in the attic. (08/15/2017)

Is it ever OK to ask children to translate for their parents in emergency situations?
When is it OK to ask children to translate for their parents in emergency situations? That’s a question law enforcement agencies are wrestling with more and more. That’s because 18.5 million children in the U.S.  have at least one immigrant parent, and more than half of those parents don’t speak English fluently. Though Fort Wayne, Ind. is a medium-sized city of 254,000 people, about 100 languages are spoken there. That can make it tricky for authorities to follow regulations under the Civil Rights Act, which forbid children from translating during emergency situations. “When our police officers respond to a crisis situation, often times children are at the forefront of that,” said police department multicultural liaison Ricardo Robles. While police can’t rely on children all the time, he pointed out that the law makes exceptions for life or death situations. “For the safety of everyone involved — we see them as a resource.”  If emergency officials don’t comply with the law, they risk losing federal funds for things like equipment and training. Related Fearing deportation, families prepare custody paperwork ICE releases mothers and children who came to U.S. from Central America Fort Wayne only has a budget of $10,000 a year for translation, or roughly 222 hours of service. That means it must also rely on nonprofits and good relationships within the immigrant community for help. Anna Guisti with the Fort Wayne Center for Nonviolence said while things are improving, she still sees too many police reports that rely on kids to translate for their parents during non-life threatening calls. “You don’t have to pay them. 'I’m not taking the time to call an interpreter or pay for anybody else,'” she said.  Not only can it cause trauma for a child, but Muneer Ahmad with Yale Law School said an inaccurate police report can affect a legal case. “So, for those who are non-English speakers the consequence is a real degradation of the quality of justice in the system as a whole.” Alejandro Morales, a language broker expert, said it’s difficult to know how often children translate for law enforcement because there is no national database. “This is a topic that is fairly new. Policy makers, educators, even politicians don’t necessarily know about this topic,” Morales said.  As awareness of the issue grows, many mid-sized cities such as Forth Worth, Tulsa and New Orleans have created programs to educate law enforcement and work with immigrant communities. (08/15/2017)

GoDaddy drops neo-Nazi site Daily Stormer
Protests against this weekend's white supremacist rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, continue to crop up in cities across the country. And they're also happening online. On Sunday night, the web hosting company GoDaddy gave neo-Nazi website, the Daily Stormer, 24 hours to move its domain name to another provider, citing a violation of the company's terms of service. Daily Stormer then registered its domain with Google, which canceled the registration citing the same reason. GoDaddy has been criticized for months for hosting the Daily Stormer. The web hosting company took action after the Daily Stormer posted offensive content about the 32-year-old woman who was killed when a white supremacist drove into the crowd of counter-protesters at the rally on Saturday. GoDaddy is in the business of giving users a place to build content and purchase domain names. The question here is — should GoDaddy, and other platforms, be the ultimate decision maker when it comes to editorializing the internet? And now that GoDaddy has taken a stand, what happens in less black-and-white situations? Marketplace Tech's Ben Johnson spoke to Eric Goldman, a law professor at Santa Clara University School of Law and director of its High Tech Law Institute, about what GoDaddy's actions mean. Below is an edited excerpt of their conversation. Ben Johnson: Do you have a sense of how this service provider and client relationship existed before this story blew up? Eric Goldman: My understanding is that GoDaddy acted as the Daily Stormer's domain host, which is different than the normal type of web hosting we assume, where a service provider provides space on its servers to publish content that's provided by a third party. As a domain host, GoDaddy will simply establish a linkage between the domain name and a set of IP addresses associated with the Daily Stormer's servers.  Johnson: So what about that do you think is relevant for this story? Goldman: First, GoDaddy doesn't actually know what's at the end of the link that it's establishing because that content changes all the time. And the second is that GoDaddy doesn't have the granular ability to turn off particularly offending content and let other content continue. It can only establish the linkage or not. And so in order to exercise any remedies GoDaddy has to kind of pull the nuclear option, the online death penalty. And the more that the people at the perfunctory level get involved with controlling content, the less granular are the solutions and the more likely that we're going to have errors of omission or commission. We'll be taking taking down content that shouldn't have been taken down or leaving up content that shouldn't have been left up.  Johnson: What is the way in which this stuff should be worked out? Goldman: At minimum, I think GoDaddy should be very thoughtful about how it interprets its terms of service. It might face cheering crowds if it decides to pull the plug on the Daily Stormer, based on a very generous reading of its own terms of service. But in the end I don't think that's what we really want GoDaddy to be doing, acting as, in a sense, the choke point for content. GoDaddy might be making a popular move this time, but next time they decide to exercise that discretion it might be a lot less popular and we might start to question whether GoDaddy is actually the appropriate editorial choke point for the internet. (08/15/2017)

Can Netflix afford more big gets like Shonda Rhimes?
Netflix, the big video on demand company, committed what amounts to a raid on the content stable of Disney. It has signed a multiyear production contract with Shonda Rhimes —creator of hit TV series such as "Grey’s Anatomy" and "Scandal." With more than 50 original shows under its belt just this year, Netflix is doubling down on the old notion that content is king. However, creating shows costs a lot of money, and with $20 billion in debt already, how many more shows can Netflix bankroll? Click the audio player above to hear the full story. (08/14/2017)

Negotiators get ready for NAFTA talks. How hard will it be?
Think about the hardest negotiation you’ve ever done — maybe over a salary or buying a house. Maybe some big deal at work. Those are like the simplest kiddie-puzzles compared with the 5,000 piece jigsaw that is a trade negotiation. Then, imagine you had to start all over once it was done, and maybe add in a few extra pieces this time around. Trade negotiators from the United States, Mexico and Canada will meet in Washington, D.C., this week to begin trying to update the North American Free Trade Agreement. Former trade negotiators let us in on the process.  Click the audio player above to hear the full story. (08/14/2017)

An ode to network TV with the creator of "This Is Us"
Before there was Netflix, or HBO, or cable, or streaming television of any kind, there were networks and seasons of TV that fed water-cooler conversation because everyone was watching the same shows. Now the television landscape is much more spread out, but that doesn't mean a network show can't still capture the public's attention. NBC's "This Is Us" averaged 15 million viewers a week last year and racked up a list of Emmy nominations for its first season, including outstanding drama series. Marketplace host Kai Ryssdal visited the Paramount Studios lot here in LA the other day to talk to Dan Fogelman, who created and now runs "This Is Us." The show's second season starts Sept. 26, and Fogelman and the rest of the cast and crew were deep in production. The following is an edited transcript of Ryssdal and Fogelman's conversation.  Dan Fogelman: We're shooting tonight. We're actually shooting in the desert tonight with — Sylvester Stallone is coming on and doing a whole war scene with us in a movie within the show today. So we're heading out there today to work with Sly.  Kai Ryssdal: You call him Sly now?  Fogelman: Yeah, I guess I'm trying it out.  Ryssdal: Are you the decider? You're the guy? Fogelman: Yes, apparently, I'm told. Yeah. It's a weird position where you have to make these big decisions for this very popular show, and suddenly you still feel like a kid who's starting out doing a TV show and you realize, "Oh crap, I'm the one who's going to make the call that is the thing."  Ryssdal: You wrote a thing in, and somebody is going to yell at me about this, either Variety or the Hollywood Reporter, I can't remember which, and it was an ode, really, to network television. Fogelman: Right. Yeah.  Ryssdal: What is it about network TV for you as opposed to cable and, ooh, "Game of Thrones" and HBO?  Fogelman: Well, I love cable. I mean, I just was literally like a 10-year-old boy on the phone driving here, talking my best friend, who was stuck in traffic, and we were analyzing the last episode of Game of Thrones, like nerds. So I love it all. For me, I grew up on network TV. I was born in 1976. And so the '80s were where I watched my television. I was kind of raised by television, to a certain degree. So there was HBO, a little, if you were lucky enough to get it, and you could see boobs. But for the most part, it was the four channels. Now obviously the world has shifted, but I think there is still something about network television. It's the way that it's accessible to people still. It's interesting where we're nominated for awards coming up with all these shows, the "Better Call Sauls" and, "The Handmaid's Tale," and "The Crown," and all these really, really cable streaming shows.  Related Predictability is bad for Netflix and HBO, but great for network television The afterlife of television Ryssdal: Well, you know, to that point about the awards, I mean this is, I think, the first network show nominated for an Emmy for best drama in like six-ish years.  Fogelman: Yeah. If you had asked me a year ago would we be in this kind of conversation and company, I didn't see that coming, just because of the nature of the show. It's about people, and there's a heavy dose of comedy and sentimentality, and those are death-knell words for a show when you're trying to be critically well-received. Ryssdal: What do you make of this whole peak TV argument, that there's just so much, maybe too much?  Fogelman: Yeah. I mean, I don't think there can ever be too much. I mean, supply and demand will dictate when too much is too much. When shows are no longer viable because there's just too many of them, they will make less shows. I think it's a real American art form right now, television, that's thriving. I think what I've been saying to people is in this landscape, if you're going to come in with a show idea, you better be doing some part of it exceptionally, because otherwise you're just going to get swallowed up by the amount.  Ryssdal: What was the elevator pitch for this thing when you went to NBC?  Fogelman: I pitched them very comprehensively the second episode of the show, saying, "I know you guys are very into this pilot that you just watched, and Mandy Moore and Milo Ventimiglia are adorable together. The second episode picks up eight years later. Those little babies are now 8 years old. Milo has a mustache. He's drinking, and their marriage is at a crossroads. And, like, the network had to get their head around that — that that's going to be the second episode of the show. And it seems really easy now to look back on it and say, "Oh yeah, that's a really cool idea." But that's a scary thing when you're pouring all the money they were pouring into a show and putting it in their best time slot.  Ryssdal: So what's your stress level? Fogelman: It was worse season one, because it was all new and happening quickly. Now I'm just kind of zen, and I'm too tired to be stressed out. You don't get this opportunity much, where people are hanging on your every word on a television show, and it's in the zeitgeist. And there's going to be a Super Bowl this year, and after the Super Bowl, a gazillion people are going to tune in to our television show, and I think it's going to be a big event. Ryssdal: That's terrifying, no, come on, that's terrifying!  Fogelman: No, because I've got really good people. The actors are so good. I can write some really bad stuff, and they'll make it seem really good. So I've already got that crutch. It's more like I want it to be perfect, and I want those big moments to be perfectly executed. So I'm driving people here crazy a little bit. Like, we shot a scene the other day that's awesome and it's really good, but I didn't like a couple of aspects of it. And they're are aspects that aren't just one-offs, they're going to come back in later episodes. And so I said, "We're going back and we're re-shooting it, because we have to get this right." Ryssdal: And that's you being the guy who makes the decisions. Fogelman: I guess.  Ryssdal: And in charge, right?  Fogelman: And spends the money. We've got this platform right now, we've got the show and we've got to take advantage of the moment. So it's more than stressful. It's exciting, I think.  Correction (August 14, 2017): A previous version of this story misstated the season two premiere date for "This Is Us." It's September 26. (08/14/2017)

Could work-based learning help rural towns prepare students for a new economy close to home?
A job isn’t always just a job – sometimes it is a way of life. This story is part of a series exploring what it means when jobs define several generations and are part of the very fabric of a community. On some days, students at the Harpswell Coastal Academy don’t even see a classroom. Behind the school, sixth-grader Easton Dundore shovels mulch into an outdoor hoop house he helped design with a few other students. It’s a class project that Dundore said he enjoys. “You get to work with other people, and you see if you like that,” he said. “It’s just a really good opportunity before starting a job,  to do this kind of thing.” It may seem a little strange to hear a sixth-grader talk about starting a job. But that’s one of the goals of the Harpswell Coastal Academy. The school formed about five years ago, when residents of the small, coastal fishing village of Harpswell, Maine, began to voice concerns about their kids’ futures. Fishing has long been one of the economic drivers of many towns in coastal Maine. But overfishing, increased regulations and climate change have largely wiped out many of the area’s fisheries. In Harpswell, the number of residents with commercial fishing and harvesting licenses fell by more than 25 percent since 2000. Harpswell Coastal Academy founder John D’Anieri said with an unclear future, residents began to worry that their kids would be less engaged in school and more likely to drop out. “That a lot of our kids aren’t able to envision a future for themselves,” D’Anieri said. “And they particularly aren’t able to find a way to live in Maine.” The solution was to create a new charter school focused on the idea of work-based learning — designed to put students into the community and expose them to different kinds of jobs in their state. “We want to create things in these communities that kids are excited to be a part of,” said Harpswell farmer Joe Grady, who helped found the school. “That’s how they stay here as adults.” At school, kids still go to math and English classes in the morning and have to meet academic standards. But teacher Micah Depper said much of the rest of the day is spent on large, group projects to teach skills that the school feels employers are looking for. “Perseverance. The ability to revise work,” Depper said. “So at our school, our students help serve lunch. They take turns cleaning up the lunchroom. Taking out the trash. Yes, cleaning the bathrooms.” And once students get to high school, they’ve got to head out into the community and apply these skills in required internships. The school has set up partnerships with local businesses to do this, like a restaurant called the New Beet Market. The Harpswell Coastal Academy buys student lunches from the New Beet Market. And the restaurant takes on four or five interns each year. It starts with simple dishwashing, but some students help with finances and create school lunch menus. The restaurant’s owner, Jamie Pacheco, said it’s important for students to get inside a business while they’re still young. “I do think it’s really important that kids learn how to be a part of the workplace,” she said. But Pacheco added that a few kids have had to abandon their internships because they couldn’t handle the stresses of the workplace. “It’s interesting being a part of that lesson,” Pacheco said. “Kids’ first jobs – it’s an adventure!” Monique Coombs with the Maine Coast Fishermen’s Association said she thinks this is important for her industry, too. She said that if kids pursue career paths like technology or public policy, that could help everyone, including fishermen. “You know, value-added products. Marine resources. Things that support the industry,” Coombs said. “To make sure there’s a good future for young kids in the industry.” It will likely take years or decades before the town will see if the strategy works. But Coombs hopes this shift is led by the young people who are already here. Related Farm-to-table movement comes to school cafeterias Kids start honing their cybersecurity skills early (08/14/2017)

The villain in James Patterson’s new book seems strangely familiar…
James Patterson may have pulled inspiration from a very public disagreement he had with online retailer Amazon for his latest novel. In "The Store," written with Richard DiLallo, two married writers try to expose an online retailer that has taken control of many aspects of everyday life.  Marketplace host Kai Ryssdal talked to Patterson about his new book. They discussed its themes and resemblance to Amazon, a company that Patterson's publisher has fought with over e-book prices, and Patterson's next collaboration, with former President Bill Clinton. The following is an edited transcript of their conversation. Kai Ryssdal: Why this book now? I mean, I'd figure a guy who does books for a living would not be interested in maligning a big, fat bookstore.  James Patterson: I'm not maligning a big, fat bookstore. I'm maligning the idea of monopolies in the country. And in particular, I think it's a problem when it threatens publishing, because I think that books are really important in our lives, especially books that we can't live without. And I think right now the people that are best equipped to put out serious books are publishers. That may evolve over time, but right now publishers are pretty good at finding those books and paying to have them done and making sure that people are aware that they exist.  Related James Patterson books continue to pile up How do authors make money from library books? James Patterson launches a new novel format he's calling "BookShots" Ryssdal: I'm going to guess you're not worried about James Patterson, because you're doing fine, but you are a guy who could just get Jeff Bezos on the phone, right? And you could say, "Jeff, look."  Patterson: I don't know. I mean, I could.  Ryssdal: Oh come on, of course you could. Patterson: He probably would read a letter if I sent one, I don't know. I mean, I don't. I met him once.  Ryssdal: Yeah. How'd it go?  Patterson: It was fine. I mean, what I said at that point was that the traffic at bookstores at that point was down about a third because a lot of people had gone over to e-books. And I said, "The problem with that is that a lot of these people have kids. They're not going into bookstores anymore, and their kids have not made the switch to e-books." And I said, "That's a problem, because there are a lot of households now where Mom or Dad used to go to the bookstore, bring the kids, so they were getting books to the kids." And I said that, you know, he was in a position to change that, even if it meant a lot more kids reading on e-books. And you know, he said at the time, "I'm on it." I don't know that I've seen evidence of that, but you know.  Ryssdal: Well, you and I have talked about this before, your interest in getting kids and people outside traditional sort of mainstream novel readers into books, right? We talked about bookshops, we talked about a bunch of other stuff you've done. Do you take any heart from the fact that Amazon now has actual brick-and-mortar stores in some places?  Patterson: Not particularly, no.  Ryssdal: Tough guy to please. Patterson: No, it's kind of neutral. I mean that they are replacing independents and, well, Borders.  Ryssdal: Well, yeah.  Patterson: I don't think it's necessarily a big step, or a good step, but it might be. We'll see where it goes.  Ryssdal: Can't let you go without asking you about this thing you got going with Bill Clinton. You're working on a book with him, you said before we turned the microphones on.  Patterson: A novel.  Ryssdal: OK, a novel. Who called who? Did you call him or he called you? Patterson: We have the same agent. I had met him before. We had a really great meeting, just shooting the breeze. And I think we got along pretty well, and our mutual agent, who is a lawyer in Washington, brought up the idea. And it really sounded exciting to both of us. And I mentioned the last time we were together, the president and I, it was in his place in Chappaqua. And we've had several of these three-, four-, five-hour work sessions, and about two hours in and for whatever reason, it just washed over me, and I'm going, "Damn, I'm sitting here talking to Bill Clinton!" And it's amazing, whether you're Republican or Democrat. And one of the interesting and important things for people to think about a little bit with respect to what's going on now in the world and how we demonize the left, demonize the right, depending on what side we're on. Clinton, now, he's really good friends with the Bushes, both of them, both Bushes. And they will go and they will do good things together. And I think a lot of people in this country, if we could get over this demonizing the other side, you know, let's get in there and once the elections are done, let's go in there and do stuff. There's a lot of stuff that needs to get done.  (08/14/2017)

NASA is testing supercomputers to send to Mars
Scientists in space have computers, but they don't exactly look like the one you might be reading this on. Computers in space have highly specific functions. There is no consumer-grade Mac or PC up in space. A lot of that has the do with the fact that laptops in space degrade quickly out there. But NASA wants to fix that problem by creating new supercomputers, developed in partnership with Hewlett Packard Enterprise. The technology is being tested on the International Space Station in hopes that the computer can withstand trips to Mars.  Marketplace Tech's Ben Johnson spoke with Hewlett Packard Enterprise's Mark Fernandez, the lead developer for the NASA project, about the mission. Below is an edited excerpt of their conversation. Related Reaching mars is a hard sell, but not impossible How to get to space without NASA Ben Johnson: What is the spaceborne computer? Mark Fernandez: The spaceborne computer is a joint effort between NASA and Hewlett Packard Enterprise. And one of the goals is to get state-of-the-art technology on board the International Space Station and to test it for at least a year. One year is the length of time we anticipate that it will take for a mission to Mars. And we kinda want to make sure that our computers, supercomputers and IT components can endure that trip. Johnson: I understand that you guys have had a long partnership with NASA. But I think some people would wonder to themselves: The government's computers seemed to have worked pretty darn good on spacecraft for the entirety of the American space program. Why does a private company need to get involved with something like this? Fernandez: Most of the computers on board the International Space Station are purpose-built for specific functions related to the flight and operation of the ISS. For example, they have a navigation computer and it only does navigation. This one is unique in that it's a general-purpose, high-performance computer system. So scientists can now have a platform with which they're familiar and begin to exploit those capabilities while in orbit rather than bringing all that data back down to Earth.  Johnson: Interesting. So it's not a mission-critical? This is something that might be a little more similar to what they have in their offices? Fernandez: Yes, absolutely. Johnson: Does it let them surf Facebook though? Fernandez: We're pretty nerdy scientists. There are no games on board. There is no keyboard or monitor. This is strictly for crunching numbers for the benefit of the scientist and the community. (08/14/2017)

08/14/2017: Countering domestic terrorism
Attorney General Jeff Sessions has called Saturday's deadly car attack in Charlottesville an act of domestic terrorism. On today's show, we'll chat with Faiza Patel from NYU's Brennan Center for Justice about how the government tries to combat violent extremism. Afterwards, we'll discuss Uruguay's attempt to draft a measure that would provide transgender people with reparations. (08/14/2017)

Merck executive resigns from president's council, and Trump lashes out
NEW YORK (AP) — The CEO of the nation's third largest pharmaceutical company resigned from a manufacturing council that advises President Donald Trump days after racially tinged clashes in Charlottesville, Virginia, citing "a responsibility to take a stand against intolerance and extremism.'' Trump, who is under increasing pressure to explicitly condemn the white supremacist and hate groups involved, lashed out almost immediately Monday at Merck CEO Kenneth Frazier on Twitter, saying that because of the resignation, the pharmaceutical executive "will have more time to LOWER RIPOFF DRUG PRICES!'' Drugmakers have come under closer scrutiny because of rising drug prices, though Merck has not been one of the companies targeted by lawmakers or watchdog groups. Frazier, who is African American, said in a tweet on Monday that the country's leaders must "honor our fundamental values by clearly rejecting expressions of hatred, bigotry and group supremacy.'' One person was killed in the protests after a car slammed into a crowd and multiple people were injured in that incident and in running clashes between white supremacists and those opposing them. Frazier is not the first executive to resign from advisory councils serving Trump. Tesla CEO Elon Musk resigned from the manufacturing council in June, and two other advisory groups to the president, after the U.S. withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement. Walt Disney Co. Chairman and CEO Bob Iger resigned from a White House advisory council for the same reason. The manufacturing jobs council had 28 members initially, but it has shrunk since it was formed earlier this year as executives retire, are replaced, or, as with Frazier, Musk and Iger, resign. Related Trump travel ban weighs on first advisory meeting with business execs Airbnb closes accounts linked to white supremacy rally The First Amendment won't protect you from saying something your company doesn't like (08/14/2017)

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